A man is screened for diabetic retinopathy during 飞行眼科医院 project in Barbados

糖尿病性视网膜病变: Causes, Symptoms, 治疗

糖尿病性视网膜病变影响着大约三分之一的糖尿病患者,是导致35-50岁成年人失明和视力丧失的主要原因. But what is diabetic retinopathy, what causes it and what can be done to treat or prevent it?

阅读下面的更多关于真人百家游戏平台眼科团队如何处理增长最快的可避免失明的原因之一.

什么是糖尿病性视网膜病变?

视网膜, 在眼睛的后面, is what creates the picture for our brain and has many small blood vessels. When blood sugar is too high caused by diabetes, these small blood vessels can break and leak blood or fluid into the eye and damage the retina.

它还会导致新血管生长,损伤或脱离视网膜,导致视力丧失.

视网膜 is responsible for clear central vision. 液体会导致黄斑——视网膜上允许真人百家游戏平台看到颜色和细节的部分——肿胀,导致视力模糊.

如果不及时治疗, diabetic retinopathy can lead to a gradual loss of vision or blindness that cannot be reversed.

图示正常眼睛与. an eye affected by Diabetic Retnopathy

正常的视网膜和. retina affected by diabetic retinopathy

糖尿病性视网膜病变的原因

Excessive blood sugar levels can cause irreversible damage to vessels in the retina.

所有类型糖尿病患者(全球4.22亿人)都有患糖尿病的风险,并可能随着时间的推移而失明.

Other risk factors for the development of diabetic retinopathy are:

  • 高血压
  • 高胆固醇

大约三分之一的糖尿病患者患有某种程度的糖尿病性视网膜病变,十分之一的糖尿病患者会发展成威胁视力的疾病.

- International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness

糖尿病性视网膜病变症状

At early stages, there are no symptoms. At later stages, people affected can have:

  • 浮动点
  • 视力模糊
  • 复视
  • 完全丧失视力

Slideshow: Images show vision loss caused by diabetic retinopathy over time

What Are the 4 Stages of 糖尿病性视网膜病变?

The four stages of diabetic retinopathy are:

轻度Nonproliferative视网膜病变

In the earliest stage of the disease, tiny bulges in the retina’s blood vessels (microaneurysms) can leak fluid into the retina. This can also lead to swelling in the macula causing blurred vision. Symptoms at this stage are usually mild or non-existent.

Moderate Nonproliferative Retinopathy

During this stage, blood vessels in the retina swell and may become blocked. 这可能导致糖尿病性黄斑水肿(DME),这是一种液体在视网膜黄斑区积聚,导致视力改变或视力丧失.

Severe Nonproliferative Retinopathy

At this stage, an increasing number of blood vessels in the eye become blocked. As a result, the retina is signaled to grow new blood vessels. 如果血管完全关闭,就会导致视力模糊,出现黑斑(飞虫)

增生性糖尿病视网膜病变

在最后阶段, 视网膜缺氧,新血管在视网膜内生长,进入玻璃体凝胶——一种充满眼睛的液体. As these blood vessels are delicate, they may begin to leak and bleed.

瘢痕组织可能会形成,导致视网膜脱离,此时视网膜会脱离下面的组织. Retinal detachment may cause spotty vision, flashes of lights or severe vision loss.

预防糖尿病视网膜病变:

健康的生活方式

保持血糖, 通过合理饮食和定期锻炼,胆固醇和血压水平得到了很好的控制,并保持了平衡的生活方式, can lower the risk of developing the condition or slow its progression.

糖尿病眼部健康检查

糖尿病患者, 通过定期的眼部检查及早发现和诊断,可预防糖尿病视网膜病变致盲 98% 的情况下. 一旦确诊, it is essential that treatment begins as quickly as possible to prevent damage to the eye.

While diabetic retinopathy cannot be fully cured, 目前已经建立了有效的治疗方法,可以保护视力,并显著降低进一步损害和视力丧失的风险.

治疗糖尿病性视网膜病变:

Intravitreal注射

在眼睛内注射药物(抗vegf)可以通过阻断身体发出的生长信号来阻止新血管的生长.

激光疗法

激光治疗是保留视力和降低糖尿病视网膜病变晚期患者进一步视力丧失风险的有效治疗方法.

焦激光疗法 stops or slows blood and fluid leaking in the eye. During the procedure, leaks from abnormal blood vessels are treated with laser burns.

Scatter laser (panretinal photocoagulation) laser burns causes the abnormal new blood vessels to shrink and scar.

眼科手术

当糖尿病视网膜病变发展到如此严重,仅靠激光治疗无法清除眼睛内的血液和疤痕组织时,就需要手术干预(玻璃体切除手术).

How 真人百家游戏平台 Is Tackling 糖尿病性视网膜病变

With an explosion of diabetes on the horizon, 要解决糖尿病视网膜病变日益严重的威胁,还有很多工作要做. A 'business as usual approach' will simply not work. 真人百家游戏平台必须超越采取更多相同的孤立干预措施,并建立一种集体和综合的办法. 真人百家游戏平台正在努力消除增长最快的致盲原因,采取以下措施:

发展基础设施

In high risk countries such as Guyana, 秘鲁, 中国, Bangladesh and Vietnam for example, 真人百家游戏平台正在建立糖尿病视网膜病变早期检测所需的基础设施,并将眼筛检纳入糖尿病患者的整体护理中.

与合作伙伴合作

真人百家游戏平台正在与政府合作, 非政府组织和高风险国家的主要卫生合作伙伴,建立和加强为糖尿病和视力丧失患者提供的现有眼科护理. 通过与糖尿病项目合作,真人百家游戏平台可以将糖尿病视网膜病变纳入糖尿病管理.

培训和创新

真人百家游戏平台正在寻找改善糖尿病视网膜病变筛查和早期检测的方法,方法是在糖尿病流行地区培训非医务人员.

与社区合作

在社区层面, 真人百家游戏平台正在通过培训和教育人们来提高人们对糖尿病和失明风险的认识——增加对高质量眼科护理的需求.

支持全球战略

Together with leading non-government agencies across the diabetes and eye care sectors, 真人百家游戏平台帮助制定了一项全球糖尿病视网膜病变战略,并带头采取最佳实践方法来遏制这一日益严重的流行病.

捐赠

Can you help help fight 糖尿病性视网膜病变 in communities around the world?

关闭模态
加载
对不起,出了点差错.
再试一次