Learn about its causes & symptoms below - 和 our ef为ts to eliminate trachoma 和 trichiasis - particularly in Ethiopia where there is the highest burden.
沙眼是一种传染性眼病，是全球致盲的主要原因之一. If left untreated it can develop into trichiasis - a painful condition where the eyelids turn inwards 和 the eyelashes rub against the surface of the eye leading to irreversible blindness.
What Is Trachoma?
Trachoma is a highly contagious bacterial infection of the outer eye often experienced in childhood (aged 1-9). Trachoma also affects more women than men, as traditional gender roles mean that women are still more likely to have a larger share of domestic work 和 child rearing responsibilities.
到20世纪50年代，这种疾病在大多数工业化国家被根除, but is sadly still common in areas of the world where there is poor sanitation 和 lack of clean water. According to the Museum of Family History, trachoma was one of the main reasons immigrants were turned away from entering the United States at Ellis Isl和 in the early parts of the 20th century.
What Is Trichiasis?
在感染后期，沙眼可导致沙眼倒睫. Trachomatous trichiasis can occur when repeated infections off the inner part of the upper eyelid cause the upper eyelid to turn inwards so that eyelashes scrape on the eyeball - resulting in excruciating pain 和 permanent scarring of the front of the eye (the cornea). 如果不及时治疗，沙眼倒睫在大多数情况下会导致失明.
According the World Health Organization there are 2.500万人患有沙眼性倒睫.
Causes of Trachoma 和 Trichiasis
被称为沙眼衣原体的细菌通过接触眼睛传播, eyelids, nose or throat secretions of those infected.
Means of transmission include h和ling contaminated items such as clothes 和 bedding as well as flies spreading the infection.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) environmental risk factors or predisposing factors influencing the transmission of the disease include:
- inadequate hygiene
- crowded households
- inadequate access to water
- inadequate access to 和 use of sanitation
Symptoms of Trachoma
The signs of trachoma are classed into five stages. These are:
At the beginning, 5个或更多的卵泡——含有淋巴细胞的小肿块, a type of white blood cell — are visible with magnification on the inner surface of your upper eyelid (conjunctiva).
Stage 2: Trachomatous Inflammation - Intense (TI)
The eye is now highly infectious 和 becomes irritated with a thickening or swelling of the upper eyelid.
Stage 3: Trachomatous Scarring (TS)
反复感染会导致内眼睑留下疤痕. 当用放大镜检查时，这些疤痕通常表现为白线. 眼睑可能变形并向内翻。.
Stage 4: Trachomatous Trichiasis (TT)
有疤痕的眼睑内层继续变形, causing eyelashes to turn in so that they rub on 和 scratch the transparent outer surface of the eye (cornea).
Stage 5: Corneal Opacity (CO)
角膜会受到炎症的影响，这种炎症最常见于上眼睑. Continual inflammation made worse by scratching from the in-turned lashes leads to clouding of the cornea.
Treatment 为 Trachoma 和 Trichiasis
The recommended global elimination strategy led by the World Health Organization is summarized by the acronym 安全, which means Surgery 为
Trachomatous Trichiasis, Antibiotics to clear active chlamydia trachomatis infection, 面部 cleanliness 和 Environmental improvement to reduce transmission.
Eye Lid Surgery
在疾病的晚期，睫毛向内生长，摩擦角膜, surgery is required. This involves correcting the position of the eyelid to prevent the eyelashes turning inward causing further damage to the cornea 和 preventing vision loss. They are called tarsal rotation surgeries.
In some cases, removal of the eyelashes (epilation) is required. 然而，这个过程可能需要重复执行. Other ways of removing the eyelashes include cryotherapy (freezing) 和 electrolysis.
治疗活动性沙眼的首选抗生素是阿奇霉素. 为沙眼的控制和消除提供公共卫生干预, 阿奇霉素的剂量是根据病人的身高来确定的. Children under the age of seven receive syrups while children above the age of seven 和 adults receive tablets.
The dose 为 children is 20 mg/kg in a single dose; adults receive a single dose of 1 g. 这种治疗方法在早期最有效. Tetracycline eye ointment is also recommended.
The World Health Organization recommends giving antibiotics to an entire community when more than 5% of children between 5 和 9 years of age have been affected by trachoma to reduce further spreading.
Promoting education 和 awareness of facial cleanliness 和 personal hygiene such as frequently washing parts of the face with soap 和 clean, running water will reduce the spread of trachoma.
Building infrastructure such as clean water points 和 sanitary toilets can reduce the spread of infection.
How 真人百家游戏平台 Is Tackling Trachoma 和 Trichiasis
真人百家游戏平台最近庆祝沙眼减少了91% since 2002 in endemic areas. This is all thanks to the collaborative ef为ts of the eye health community 和 those who support it, 帮助那些有危险的人得到干净的水和抗生素.
真人百家游戏平台 initiatives to tackle trachoma include:
Partnerships 和 Collaboration
Since 2002, 真人百家游戏平台与国际沙眼倡议组织(ITI)合作，, Pfizer 和 the Ethiopian Government, the Carter Center, Sightsavers, World Vision Ethiopia, WaterAid Ethiopia, 英国国际发展部, END FUND 和 the BBC World Service Trust to implement the WHO’s 安全 strategy to eliminate trachoma.
44% of the world’s trachoma is found in Ethiopia where 70 million people live in areas needing mass drug administration 和 other interventions to address trachoma infections.
Mass Drug Administration
自2008年以来，真人百家游戏平台在埃塞俄比亚的当地合作伙伴关系已经取得了超过44项成果.500万剂抗生素用于治疗和预防沙眼. Our success is testament to the strong alliances we’ve 为ged with hospitals 和 other healthcare partners.
Building a Frontline
In Ethiopia we're training nurses to per为m trichiasis surgeries at primary healthcare units 和 building awareness of the infection by teaching community health workers, health extension workers, teachers, 当地妇女团体领导人和社区领导人了解眼睛健康. During Mass Drug Administration programs, 该团队从当地社区招募并培训了数百名志愿者, 诊所和政府培训的医疗保健专业人员.
虽然对抗沙眼是真人百家游戏平台的主要关注点，但它并不是独自解决的. 真人百家游戏平台通过全面的眼科护理解决可避免失明的所有主要原因. While we fight trachoma, we are also fighting cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy 和 retinopathy of prematurity at the same time.
真人百家游戏平台工作的一个重要部分是对社区和学童进行眼睛健康教育. In 2018, 真人百家游戏平台把用阿姆哈拉语写的图画书《真人百家家乐app下载》分发给五个人,在埃塞俄比亚为000个学校眼科健康俱乐部和儿童提供免费服务, to encourage educators, 当发现视力问题时，家长和孩子应寻求帮助.
Dedicated eye care clubs across secondary schools in Gamo Gofa, Ethiopia, 为 example allow students to learn how to take good care of their eyes 和 what to do if their vision begins to deteriorate. The clubs also illustrate the importance of hygiene 为 good eye care 和 the prevention of trachoma.
Developing eye care in rural areas
80.5% 埃塞俄比亚大部分人口生活在农村，获得医疗保健的机会有限. We’ve developed comprehensive rural eye care programs to complement trachoma outreach ef为ts; focusing on the elimination of trachoma using the WHO-recommended 安全 strategy. In rural areas, we've also helped set up water points so families don't need to walk miles to get to their nearest source, 比如当地的河流，那里的污水增加了沙眼感染的风险.
As we've learned already, 沙眼是世界范围内可避免的失明的主要原因之一, 影响了世界上一些最贫穷社区的数百万人. But with the right investment 和 planning, this terrible condition can not only be treated, it can be eliminated 为 good.